Thanjavur is the eleventh largest city in Tamil Nadu with a population of 221,185 (est. 2008). Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Thanjavur has an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 76%. In Thanjavur, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. Tamil is the most widely spoken language while Telugu, Saurashtrian and Thanjavur Marathi are also spoken. The Tamil spoken in Thanjavur constitutes the Thanjavur dialect which is the standard lingua franca of the Cauvery delta. Hindus form the majority, but the town has substantial Muslim and Christian minorities.

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